Roasted Fig Preserves with Lemon and Thyme

This is what a lush, ripe Brown Turkey fig looks like. Notice the stretch marks. That means it is bursting with flavor.

During fig season, I can see these dark, plump jewels sunning themselves on the tree from every vantage point in my backyard. First, they tempt and then they taunt me until I finally find myself risking life and limb to get to them. Often, I  have to climb a ladder and use a long garden tool like a bow rake to grab and pull down a limb, and then reach even further to pluck one from a branch. This all happens first thing in the morning while the outside temperatures are still tolerable. My friend Linda calls it #pajamagardening.

There are others who desire the same figs. I am in constant competition with small birds, the squirrels in the neighborhood, and my chickens. They know they can eat figs to their heart’s content without fear of being seen by predatory hawks when under the canopy of the broad, palmate-shaped fig leaves.

Here’s a video of one of my chickens reaching for a fig. It is best watched in full screen mode. My friend Carrington calls it #rubberchicken.

 

Ina would use the big leaves to line a cheese platter. Just sayin’.

Growing Figs

Fig trees are native to tropical climates, but a few varieties, such as Brown Turkey and Chicago Hardy, have been cultivated to grow in cooler climes (zones 6-11). We planted our tree in front of a southern-facing brick wall so the heat stored in the bricks could warm the tree during winter. Additionally, and this was purely happenstance, our air-conditioner’s condensate pipe drips over the roots all summer long keeping the tree well-hydrated.

Our fig production and access capabilities quadrupled after I pruned the tallest limbs by almost half last March. Later, in April, my husband fertilized the roots with chicken manure. Now the tree is shaped like a sprawling ball and is loaded with figs.

Everything you wanted to know about fig reproduction, but were afraid to ask.

One of my hobbies is studying plant reproduction. All fruits and vegetables start with a flower that once pollinated starts to grow a pod with either one seed in it, like a peach, or many seeds, such as apples and tomatoes. Botanically, the seed pod is known as an ovary. Aggravating as it may feel when a squirrel or chipmunk runs off with a peach or a tomato you have patiently watched ripen, they are doing what nature intended — they are dispersing seeds. Mother Nature doesn’t care if we like our fruits and vegetables. She cares about plant reproduction and species survival.

With that in mind, the first thing I noticed when my tree started producing fruit was the absence of flowers. This photo was taken on April 7th as fig pods and leaves appeared. The pods emerged from the branches but were never preceded by a flower.

This begged the question, How does the fig reproduce without flowers? It turns out the flowers are inside the fig. Hundreds of them! The color inside a fig comes from its flowers.

Last summer, the producer and host of Nashville Public Television’s The Volunteer Gardener came to my garden to film a segment featuring Jeremy Lekich, an expert on edible landscapes and owner of Nashville Foodscapes.   In the show, Jeremy takes viewers around my yard and introduces them to many unusual edibles and explains fig pollination. You can watch the segment here.

By virtue of where the flowers are located, pollination needs to take place inside the fig. To move pollen from a male fig to a female requires the presence of specialized fig wasps who enjoy a symbiotic relationship with figs. The wasps get a place to reproduce and the figs get access to highly specific pollinators. I found this awesome video that shows how microscopic wasps crawl into figs. This other video from PBS’s Gross Science takes it from there describing what happens next in reproduction.

New varieties of common figs, like my Brown Turkey, have been cultivated to not need a wasp for pollination. The female trees are asexual, and the seeds produced are not viable — they are empty seeds. You will see lots of them when we finally get around to cooking the figs!

Every Christmas I make my grandmother’s Sicilian fig cookies. The recipe calls for dried Calimyrna figs. Calimyrnas are a Californian cultivar of the Turkish Smyrna fig (Calimyrna = California + Smyrna) that does require a wasp for pollination. They produce “true seeds” — seeds that are viable for reproduction. Fertile seeds are thick and crunchy, and have a nutty flavor preferred by bakers. They are the figs used to make Fig Newtons.

How to Make Fig Preserves

I cooked many not-so-delicious batches of fig preserves  on the stove before it occurred to me to try roasting them with herbs as I do my strawberry jam. The results were amazing. Roasting intensified the depth of flavor exponentially. They were so good, I took all my reject batches, mixed them together, and roasted two trays for about an hour. Suddenly, they were all tastier, too.

Ingredients:

4-5 pounds fresh figs (12 cups, once stemmed and quartered)*
5 cups granulated sugar
⅓ cup freshly squeezed lemon juice
1 tablespoon balsamic vinegar
one bunch of thyme sprigs (⅓ ounce) or 3-4 long stems of fresh rosemary

*Today, I saw four varieties of figs for sale at Trader Joe’s!

Instructions:

Remove stems and quarter figs.

Place in a lightly-greased heavy-bottomed pot.

Add sugar and acids and stir. The amount of sugar sounds like a lot, but you need sugar to preserve fruit. Acids help fruit release its naturally occurring pectin. Once mixed, place in refrigerator and allow to macerate for a minimum of two hours or overnight.

When ready to cook, preheat oven to 175º. Add thyme or rosemary and simmer on low heat for about twenty minutes. If using thyme, strip leaves before stirring in. If using rosemary, do not strip leaves; leave stems intact and remove before bottling.

Pour hot figs into two rimmed sheet pans and roast for about 4-5 hours.

One way to tell if they have cooked long enough to gel once cooled is to draw a path through the figs and see if the two sides stay separated. If they do, they are ready. You should be able to smell them if they are sufficiently roasted. If you overcook them, they will become thick and gummy when cool. Better to undercook than to overcook.

Pour hot preserves into clean jars, wipe the rims, cover with screw top lids, and turn upside down while they cool. I store them in the fridge, where they should be good for two months.,

I’ll end this story with one last video of my chickens eating figs in the early morning hours.

 

What are my favorite ways to enjoy fig preserves?

By the spoonful — just out of the oven.

My cousin, Marion, served the fig preserves over a delicious blend of cow, sheep, and goat milk cheeses called Rochetta. It was delish. As soon as I got home, I bought a similar cheese called La Tur at Whole Foods.

I often have fig preserves spread over Homemade Ricotta on toast for breakfast, or I’ll make an almond butter and fig sandwich for lunch.

I love brie and fig paninis. Hard to get a photo of the finished product with these crazy-good sandwiches, though.

Please let me know if you make the preserves!

Related Posts:
How to Make Homemade Whole Milk Ricotta
Oven-Roasted Strawberry and Rosemary Jam
Homemade Grape Jelly
Crab Apple Jelly

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© 2014-2019 Judy Wright. All rights reserved. Photos, videos, and text may only be reproduced with the written consent of Judy Wright.

Brie Bites with Preserves and Toasted Spicy Pecans

Last night I went to a holiday party for my tennis group. Everyone was asked to bring an appetizer. I knew my day would be packed with errands, but I didn’t fret because as long as I have phyllo shells in the freezer and brie in the fridge, I can whip up a tray of warm Brie Bites in just fifteen minutes!

Having two or three boxes of pre-cooked Athens Phyllo Mini-Shells in the freezer and a round of brie in the fridge during the holidays is the key to being able to make this appetizer, with the topping of your choice, at a moment’s notice.

Here the cups are filled with a pat of brie.

My Favorite Toppings:

I LOVE the combination of brie and fig preserves. If I still have a jar of Roasted Fig Preserves in the fridge, I’ll top the brie with that. A reasonable facsimile, available in most grocery stores or on Amazon, is a jar of this burst of deliciousness:

During the holidays, I typically have some of Grandma’s Cranberry Chutney in the fridge, and I often top the brie with that. If not, I keep a jar of my tennis friend Leigh Oakley’s Oakley’s Spreadalicious Sweet and Hot Pepper Jelly in the cupboard for last-minute appetizers. It is also good poured over a log of warm goat cheese, sprinkled with toasted, sliced almonds, and topped with a sprinkle of fresh thyme leaves for color.

My friend and fabulous cook, Mindy, makes her brie bites with Oakley’s Spreadalicious topped with yummy, lightly salted, toasted pecans. The mix of spicy-sweet pepper jelly, toasted spicy pecans, earthy brie, and crunchy phyllo shell is crazy good!

Here is how to make Mindy’s Spicy, Lightly Salted Toasted Pecans:

Preheat oven to 300º

Melt 2 tablespoons of butter in a saucepan. Turn heat off. Add one pound of pecans. Toss until evenly coated. Add one shake of Lawry’s Seasoned Salt and a sprinkle of sea salt. Toss again. Taste and adjust seasoning.
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Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Spread nuts in a single layer. Roast for 25-30 minutes or until you can just start to smell them in the oven. They are addictive!

Instructions for Preparing the Brie Cups:

Preheat oven to 350º. Line a sheet pan with parchment paper.

Remove the snowy white rind that covers the wheel of brie. Or not. The rind is completely edible, and whether to leave it on or to remove it is a personal choice. I think it adds a mushroomy flavor that I’m not crazy about for this appetizer but tastes fine when I eat it unadorned on a cracker. Slice the brie into small square slices to fit in the phyllo shells. Bake for 5-7 minutes or until cheese melts. Remove pan from oven.

Add a spoonful of chutney or preserves, or just a toasted pecan, or both, to the melted brie. Place sheet pan back in the oven for a minute to warm the topping. Serve warm.

Other crowd-pleasing appetizers:
“Croatian Cheese” a Flavorful Appetizer Made with Feta and Goat Cheese
Grandma’s Italian Fried Cauliflower
A Quick and Easy Baked Hummus and Feta Appetizer
Roasted Tamari Almonds
Outrageous Roasted Rosemary Cashews

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© 2014-2020 Judy Wright. All rights reserved. Photos and text may only be used with written consent.

Crab Apple Jelly

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The first year that I noticed my two crab apple trees were loaded with fruit, it was because my mother was outside cutting branches from them to use in floral arrangements for a party.

Elephant Painting

My mother would make beautiful arrangements from random plants when she visited; crab apple decorations shouldn’t have surprised me. What did surprise me was the trees were loaded with gorgeous, red fruit and the fruit was edible. The next year, I picked every last crab apple off those trees and canned my first jars of crab apple jelly.

Growing Crab Apples

We have two crab apple trees in our backyard, both planted by the Nashville Electric Service through their Tree Replacement Program. It took about five years for them to start producing fruit. They are hardy and do not require extra care.

The trees bloom in mid-April.

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If pollinated, they set their fruit in early May.

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The fruit starts ripening in September and is ready for harvest by mid-October.

crab apple fall garden

Harvest day

This fall, when I went to check on my trees for fruit, they were bare. I have no idea what happened; the trees were loaded in early August. Fortuitously, my good friend Deb Hudson’s, crab apple tree was full of fruit and my husband and I were able to pick fourteen pounds in no time.

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It’s raining crab apples, hallelujah!

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Making Jelly

Jelly is made from the strained juice of cooked whole fruit, whereas jam is made with thin-skinned berries or tree fruits (the ones with easily extracted nuts, i.e. peach) that are crushed and the pulp retained. Both jellies and jams use a high concentration of sugar as the preserving agent and rely on pectin for the congealing or thickening agent.

Making jelly requires two cooking steps. First, fruit is cooked and strained to release the pectin from the fruit’s cell walls. Second, the pectin-laden juice is boiled vigorously with sugar until the sugar and water concentration hit the sweet spot — the point at which the mixture will congeal when it is at room temperature.

That sweet spot is known as the “set point” in the world of jelly-making. If you cook the jelly mixture past the set point, you end up with hard candy. If you don’t cook it long enough, you end up with a fruity syrup. Get it right, and you have a home-made delicacy at the ready in your refrigerator. This very small risk of utter failure, that, let’s face it, is of no consequence to the world, is one of the things that make successful jelly-making such a thrilling and deeply satisfying experience for cooks.

Establishing the set point can be tricky. There’s a reason you never see the direction “cook jelly until it sets” in a cookbook. If you cooked the fruit mixture until it thickened to a gel, by the time it cooled, it would indeed be hard candy. Instead, you need to learn how to test for the set point while you are cooking so you can remove the mixture from the heat at the correct time. Fortunately, cooks have developed a few time-honored methods for making this determination that we’ll get to.

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To improve your chances of achieving a good set, it helps to understand the key players in the process: pectin, sugar, and acid.

Pectin Demystified

The word pectin comes from the Greek “pekitikos” and means curdled or congealed. As fruit is cooked, its cells expand and rupture, releasing pectin into the pulp. Pectin strands are complex chains of carbohydrates found in the leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits of plants. Pectin gives structure to plants.  Accordingly, as fruit becomes overripe, its pectin content diminishes, and the fruit looses its shape. Jelly is made from a balanced mixture of strained fruit juice and sugar, held together by a webby network of these long pectin strands.

Before you begin making jelly, it helps to have an idea about the natural pectin content of the fruit you are preserving. Check out this chart to learn the pectin and acid content of most fruits. One thing you will notice right away is that pectin and acid levels often correspond to one another.

Acid? What’s acid got to do with it?

Acid helps release pectin from fruit. Later, it helps with the gelling process by creating the right environment for pectin strands to bond. It also improves the color and flavor of jelly. Some fruits are acidic by nature, especially the tart ones like crab apples and cranberries. Others, like pears and strawberries, are sweet and subsequently lower in acid. They often need an outside source of ascorbic acid. Lemon juice is the most common acidifier used when making jams and jelly.

Sugar 

Sugar is a mighty natural preservative. It is right up there with salt as an ingredient that will draw out moisture from fruit and stop micro-organisms from growing and spoiling food. Don’t add sugar to fruit until after it has softened as sugar inhibits the release of pectin. Once the fruit is softened and ready to be boiled down, the addition of sugar helps the pectin to gel.

Fruit juice needs sugar, and lots of it to preserve fruit for long-term storage. As a rule of thumb, add sugar to juice using a 1:1 ratio (one cup juice gets one cup sugar) for high-pectin, high-acid fruits. You can play around with this amount as you gain experience with the various amounts of pectin and acid in fruit.

Testing for Set Point

To test for set point, first take the pot off the heat. I use the “flake” or “sheeting” test. Scoop up about a teaspoonful of hot liquid with a wooden spoon. Let the liquid sit there for five seconds to cool slightly and then tilt the spoon and watch the liquid drip. In the beginning, the drops will drip in a steady stream indicating the liquid needs to boil more. Soon, the drops will form into tiny triangles indicating the pectin network is forming. When the mixture is ready, the last drops pouring off will run together. This is known as sheeting.

By removing the test liquid from the heat and air-cooling it, you’ve given yourself a quick glimpse of what the liquid will do when it cools down to room temperature. You’ve made an educated guess.

Photo Timeline of Sheeting Test

11:36 (stream), 11:54 (small triangle drop), 12:02 (sheeting). Know that the timing is different for every batch of jelly as it all has to do with how much water needs to be evaporated from the juice and how long that will take.

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Take a look at my post on making grape jelly to learn about making jelly that requires the addition of commercial pectin.

Recipe for a Small Batch of Crab Apple Jelly

My husband and I made two batches of jelly; one was a small batch that used 3.5 pounds of apples and the other was a large batch that used the remaining 10.5 pounds. It took 12 minutes for the small batch to reach set point and 45 minutes for the large batch. The difference in time was due to the large amount of water that had to be evaporated from the large batch.

Before you start cooking wash jelly jars in the dishwasher. You want the jars to be warm when you fill them. Boil the lids in water for five minutes before using. Use tongs to handle jars and lids.

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Small Batch Jelly Yield: 6 cups

Ingredients:
3½ pounds firm, crab apples (8-9 cups) which yield 3½-4 cups of juice
Enough water to be level with apples in the pot (3-4 cups)
3  5-inch sprigs fresh rosemary
zest of half a lemon
about 4 cups granulated sugar (1 cup sugar: 1 cup juice)

Mise en place for cooking the fruit

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Mise en place for cooking juice and sugar mixture to make jelly

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Instructions

First: Cook the Fruit

Wash crab apples and remove leaves and most of the stems. Inspect fruit for rot and black spots. Discard less than perfect fruit.

Place apples, zest, and rosemary in a 6-8 quart stainless steel saucepan. Pour water into the pot until it is level with the crab apples, about 3-4 cups. Do not add sugar, yet.

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Bring fruit and water to a boil over medium heat. Turn heat to low and simmer for 15 minutes, stirring occasionally.

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Remove pot from heat and use a potato masher to break up the apples. Return to heat and continue to simmer until fruit is soft — another 5 or 10 minutes. Do not cook longer because you will run the risk of destroying the pectin.

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Place a muslin-lined sieve over a large, clean bowl. Pour cooked fruit in and allow mixture to drain overnight. If you push it through the sieve with force, your juice will likely become cloudy.

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Measure juice. You should have about four cups. If you don’t, place a heavy object on top of the pulp to slowly release more juice. Sometimes I drizzle a little hot water over the pulp and use what drips out to make up the difference and get me to four cups.

Next: Make the Jelly

Pour juice into a clean, deep, wide, heavy-bottomed saucepan that allows room for boiling a liquid that is going to froth and rise about four inches.

Bring fruit juice to a simmer over medium heat. Add sugar and stir over low heat until sugar has dissolved.

Turn up the heat to medium and bring mixture to a low rolling boil. A rolling boil is when the entire surface of the liquid is boiling, not just the edges.  After five minutes start checking the juice for set point. Remove the pot from the heat each time you check.

At first, the rolling boil will be frothy and rise up the sides of the pot. Watch carefully and control the frothiness by adjusting the heat. Otherwise, the mixture will boil over and make a mess.

As the mixture cooks, it changes from a frothy boil

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to a ploppy boil.

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Continue to test for sheeting until you reach set point. Immediately remove pot from heat it is reached. Skim any surface residue with a slotted spoon.

Here’s a photo of sheeting from my recipe for my oven-roasted strawberry jam. This set point test method works for both jellies and jams.

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Finally: Store the Jelly

Ladle hot jelly into clean, warm jars, leaving ¼ inch of headspace. Wipe the rims with a clean damp cloth. Cap them and turn them upside down and allow to cool. This helps give the jars a good seal without processing, but unless they are processed in a boiling water bath, they will need to be stored in the refrigerator until ready to use. Alternatively, you could heat process them.

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Crab apple jelly tastes equally great on toast or served alongside roasted pork or chicken.

Another floral arrangement with crab apples!

Flowers by Mary

Beautiful floral arrangements, delicious jelly, and gorgeous colorful fruit — crab apple trees give a lot of bang for the buck. Plus, they are good pollinators.

Other Posts About Making Jelly, Jam, and Chutney
How to Make Grape Jelly (and grow the grapes)
Grandma’s Cranberry Chutney
Oven-Roasted Strawberry and Rosemary Jam
Raising Sorghum Cane

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Follow my photos of vegetables growing, backyard chickens hanging out, and dinner preparations on Instagram at JudysChickens.

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© 2014-2017 Judy Wright. All rights reserved. Photos and text may only be used with written consent.

Oven-Roasted Strawberry and Rosemary Jam

Summer. In. A. Jar. The local strawberry season is too short; just six weeks long. Have you ever wanted to capture the smell and flavor of a just-picked, warm, lusciously ripe strawberry? If so, try making a jar of this oven-roasted strawberry and rosemary jam with a touch of lemon juice or balsamic vinegar. This recipe was given to me by my friend, Malinda Hersch, Program Director at The Nashville Food ProjectMalinda made it for TNFP’s Patron’s Party gift baskets.

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The idea for this post started when I read in Edible Nashville, a gorgeous publication on local food trends, that the first Tennessee strawberries were coming in. On a whim, I emailed Hank Delvin at Delvin Farms to see if his strawberry crop was ripe. He said they were getting ready to pick that morning and invited me to join them.

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I love driving out to Delvin Farms in College Grove. It’s a beautiful drive, and I know I’ll always learn something new about organic farming practices from Hank or his dad. Check out this post from last year when I chronicled a morning spent gleaning vegetables for TNFP at Delvin Farms. The most interesting tidbit I learned on this visit was the concept of incomplete pollination. Like for many of you, I’ve seen the results of incomplete pollination, misshapen berries like the ones in the picture below, I just didn’t know there was a name for it — or a reason.

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Some misshapen berries are lovely!

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Hank plants new June-bearing strawberry plants in long rows of plastic-covered raised beds every September. The plants go dormant in the winter and start growing again in the spring. The plastic keeps the weeds out and helps to warm the soil in the early spring.  Once the delicate flowers start blooming, it is imperative that the blooms be protected from frost.

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To this end, whenever the temperature dips, Hank’s staff has to cover each row of strawberries with agricultural cloth. This past spring there were six frosts in the three weeks preceding the first harvest.

Plant Sex

Strawberries are considered self-pollinators, and as such, their male and female parts are on the same flower. It takes gravity, the wind, rain, and insect pollinators to move the pollen across the flower to pollinate it. If the plants are covered, the wind and bees can’t do their part, thus, a higher incidence of incomplete pollination.

I was amazed to see the plants’ leaves waving in the wind, a wind I couldn’t even feel.

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Pistils and stamens. Remember them?

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The strawberry flower is not your typical flower. Yes, it has the male parts which are the yellow pollen coated anthers known as stamens. And it has the female part called an ovule that connects to an ovary and collectively is known as the pistil. However, whereas most flowers only have one pistil, the strawberry is an aggregate fruit and has as many as 500 spike-like ovules, each one an immature egg needing to be pollinated so it can produce seed. The more of those ovules that get pollinated, the bigger, puffier, and more perfect the strawberry.

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The Recipe!

Yield: 4 cups of jam
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8 cups (2 quarts) strawberries, stems removed and berries quartered
4 cups granulated sugar
¼ cup lemon juice or balsamic vinegar
4 bushy sprigs fresh rosemary (1/2 ounce).

Clean and hull two quarts of strawberries. Figure on four cups of berries per quart container.

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Slice berries into lengthwise quarters.

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Add strawberries and sugar to a mixing bowl, stir and allow to macerate, which means to break down and soften.

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Allow berries to macerate for two hours, or up to 24 hours, stirring regularly to re-incorporate the sugar that sinks to the bottom. Don’t skip this step. It’s what helps the berry chunks to keep their shape.

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Squeeze the juice out from one large lemon and set aside.

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Pour the macerated strawberries and lemon juice or vinegar into a saucepan. Bring to a full rolling boil over high heat watching carefully, so the juice doesn’t boil over. A rolling boil is one that doesn’t stop boiling when you stir it.

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Once the mixture reaches a full boil, reduce the heat and simmer uncovered for ten minutes. About five minutes into the cooking time, add the rosemary sprigs, stir, and continue to simmer.

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The lemon juice and vinegar are acids and when heated help release the pectin in berries. Pectin is a gum-like substance that is needed to “set” jams and jellies. It occurs naturally in fruits, but more can be added in the form of powder if a faster set is desired.  For more on pectin, read my posts about making grape jelly and crabapple jelly.

Now it is time to roast the berries.
Preheat oven to 150º. If your oven’s lowest temperature setting is a little higher than that, that is fine. You could even set the oven to convection roast and cook it in half the time, but I prefer the slow cook method.

Pour the mixture, including the rosemary, into a  13″ by 18″ baking pan. Place pan on the middle oven shelf and roast for 10 hours, or until the syrup is thickened and has a gel-like appearance. I often put it in the oven at bedtime and take it out the next morning.

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How to test hot jelly for gel formation: Use a chilled wooden spoon to scoop up the preserves. Allow to cool and then tilt the spoon, so jam starts to drips. If the drips form a triangle-shaped thick flake, it is ready. Don’t get too hung up here with the testing. After 10 hours, assume it is going to be great!

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Ladle into four 8-ounce hot, clean jars using a large-holed funnel and either
1) process in a water bath for 10 minutes, using the appropriate two-part jar caps, aka “canning,” or
2) cover with lids, turn upside down, allow to cool, and store in the refrigerator, right side up, until ready to use, or
3) freeze in plastic containers.

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I love the combination of strawberries, sugar, and balsamic vinegar, so I often substitute four tablespoons of balsamic vinegar for the lemon juice. The vinegar not only flavors the jam, but it gives it a smoother, earthier taste than the lemon juice.

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This jam is great spooned over @judyschickens granola and plain, low-fat yogurt.

About The Nashville Food Project

The Nashville Food Project brings people together to grow, cook and share nourishing food, with the goals of cultivating community and alleviating hunger in our city. Their primary fundraising event, Nourish, will take place on Thursday, July 20th this year in the gorgeous dining hall at Montgomery Bell Academy.

Other Recipes with Strawberries
Strawberry Rhubarb Pie
Very Berry Clafoutis

Other Jelly Recipes
Crabapple Jelly
Grape Jelly

Other Breakfast Foods
DIY Yogurt and Yogurt Cheese
Sorghum, Oats, and Cranberry Granola
The Biscuit King
Mom’s Monkey Bread, circa 1970

LET’S STAY CONNECTED!

Follow my photos of vegetables growing, backyard chickens hanging out, and dinner preparations on Instagram at JudysChickens.

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© 2014-2017 Judy Wright. All rights reserved. Photos and text may only be used with written consent.